Intermodulation References
Updated 7 March 2003
    
    
  1. Abuelma'atti, M.T., "Nonlinear Distortion Due to Early Voltage Effect in the Current Source Transistors of Bipolar Transconductance Stages," Microelectronics Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, Mar 1989, pp. 11-18.
    
    
  2. Agrawal, P.C. and J.V. Hanson, "Cross-Modulation in Ring Diode Modulators," Proceedings of the IEEE, Feb 1968, pp. 191-192.
    
    
  3. Akgun, M. and M.J.O. Strutt, "Cross Modulation and Nonlinear Distortion in RF Transistor Amplifiers," IRE Transactions on Electron Devices, Oct 1959, pp. 457-467.
    
    
  4. Aparin, V. and C. Persico, "Effect of Out-of-Band Terminations on Intermodulation Distortion in Common-Emitter Circuits," IEEE 2000 International Microwave Symposium.
    
    
  5. Azar, Y., "Choice of Load Resistance for Minumum Harmonic Distortion," Electronic Engineering, Feb 1962, pp. 108-110.
    
    
  6. Belevitch, V., "Non-Linear Effects in Ring Modulators," Wireless Engineer, May 1949, p. 177.
    
    
  7. Blanco, C., "Gain Expansion and Intermodulation in a MESFET Amplifier," Electronics Letters, Vol. 15, No. 1, 4 Jan 1979, pp. 31-32.
    
    
  8. Bokk, O.F. and E.B. Gribov, "Small-Signal Calculation of the Amplitude of the Third-Order Combination-Frequency in a Transistor Amplifier," Telecommunications and Radio Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 3, Mar 1969, pp. 125-129.
    
    
  9. Breed, G.A., "Intermodulation Distortion," RF Design, pp. 61-62.
    
    
  10. Breed, G.A., "Test Setups for Measuring Intermodulation Distortion," RF Design, Aug 1995, pp. 60-66.
    
    
  11. Bruck, Yu.M., "Fifth-Order Linearization of P-N Junction and BJT by Linear Resistance Only," 9th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, Tel-Aviv, Israel, May 1998, pp. 4898-493.
    
    
  12. Caverly, R.H., "Distortion in GaAs MESFET Switch Circuits," Microwave Journal, Sep 1994, pp. 106-114.
    
    
  13. Choma, J., "Harmonic and Intermodulation Distortion in Current-Feedback Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers," Proceedings of the IEE, Part G, Vol. 128, No. 5, Oct 1981, pp. 264-268.
    
    
  14. Chugayev, V.N., "Parasitic Self-Modulation in Linear Transistor Power Amplifiers," Telecommunications and Radio Engineering, Vol. 30/31, No. 12, Dec 1976, pp. 41-45.
    
    
  15. Collins, S. and K. Flynn, "Intermodulation Characteristics of Ferrite-Based Directional Couplers," Microwave Journal, Nov 1999, pp. 122-130.
    
    
  16. de Carvalho, N.B. and J.C. Pedro, "Compact Formulas to Relate ACPR and NPR to Two-Tone IMR and IP3," Microwave Journal, Dec 1999, pp. 70-84.
    
    
  17. Desoer, C.A., "Nonlinear Distortion in Feedback Amplifiers," IRE TRansactions on Circuit Theory, Mar 1962, pp. 2-6.
    
    
  18. Dewitt, D. and A.L. Rossoff, "TRANSISTOR ELECTRONICS," McGraw-Hill, 1957 (chapter 7).
    
    
  19. Duncan, D.M., "Non-Linearity in Transistor Amplifiers," Proceedings of the IREE (Australia), Mar 1964, pp. 149-157.
    
    
  20. Ebstein, B., R. Huenemann, and R. Sea, "The Correspondence of Intermodulation and Cross Modulation in Amplifiers and Mixers," Proceedings of the IEEE, August 1967, pp. 1514-1516 (see comments in March 1968, pp. 355-357).
    
    
  21. Engelson, M., "Distortion Measurements Using the Spectrum Analyzer," RF Design, Mar 1995, pp. 38-45.
    
    
  22. Fair, Richard B., "Harmonic Distortion in the Junction Field-Effect Transistor with Field-Dependent Mobility," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. ED-19, No. 1, Jan 1972, pp. 9-13.
    
    
  23. Farren, L.I., "Some Properties of Negative Feedback Amplifiers," Wireless Engineer, Jan 1938, pp. 23-35. (see correspondence in Feb 1938, pp. 90-91, and May 1937, p. 9)
    
    
  24. Fong, K.L. and R.G. Meyer, "High-Frequency Nonlinearity Analysis of Common-Emitter and Differential-Pair Transconductance Stages," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 4, Apr. 1998, pp. 548-555.
    
    
  25. Gardiner, J.G., "An Intermodulation Phenomenon in the Ring Modulator," The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol. 39, No. 4, Apr 1970, pp. 193-197.
    
    
  26. Gardiner, J.G., "Local-Oscillator-Circuit Optimisation for Minimum Distortion in Double-Balanced Modulators," Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 119, No. 9, Sep 1972, pp. 1251-1256.
    
    
  27. Gardiner, J.G., "The Relationship Between Cross-Modulation and Intermodulation Distortions in the Double-Balanced Mixer," Proceedings of the IEEE, Nov 1968, pp. 2069-2071.
    
    
  28. Gardiner, J.G. and D.C. Surana, "Distortion Phenomena in a Switching Transistor Mixer," Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 116, No. 11, Nov 1969, pp. 1855-1859.
    
    
  29. Gardiner, J.G. and A.M. Yousif, "Distortion Performance of Single-Balanced Diode Modulators," Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 117, No. 8, Aug 1970, pp. 1609-1614.
    
    
  30. Gaudel, H. and J.M. Lagorsse, "Etude de la Non-Linearite des Transistores Bipolaires Haute-Frequence," L'Onde Electrique, Vol. 55, No. 8, Aug 1975, pp. 427-436.
    
    
  31. Giannini, F., G. Leuzzi, E. Limiti, and L. Scucchia, "Design-Oriented Non-Linear Analysis of Class-AB Power Amplifiers," !((# IEEE International Microwave Symposium, pp. 297-300.
    
    
  32. Goldberg, Harold B., "Predict Intermodulation Distortion," Electronic Design, 10 May 1970, pp. 76-78.
    
    
  33. Goldfarb, M.E., "Intermodulation Products," Microwave Journal, May 1985, pp. 297-301.
    
    
  34. Golovin, O.V. and I.K. Agilar, "Methods of Improving Linearity in Professional SW Receivers," Telecommunications and Radio Engineering, Vol. 39, #1, Jan 1984, pp. 69-74.
    
    
  35. Gross, B.P., "Calculating the Cascade Intercept Point of Communications Receivers," Ham Radio, Aug 1980, pp. 50-52.
    
    
  36. Gretsch, W.R., "The Spectrum of Intermodulation Generated in a Semiconductor Diode Junction," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 54, No. 11, Nov 1966, pp. 1528-1535.
    
    
  37. Gumowski, I., "L'Effet de la Reaction sur le Gain des Amplificateurs Non Lineaires," Annales de Telecommunications, Vol. 13, No. 1-2, Jan/Feb 1958, pp. 45-47.
    
    
  38. Gupta, M-S., "Gain Expansion in Negative-Resistance Amplifiers," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-9, No. 1, Feb 1974, p. 37.
    
    
  39. Hazelton, R.B. and D.R. Macedonia, "Mixer Intermodulation and Dynamic Range Enhancement," RF Expo 92 Digest, pp. 61-85.
    
    
  40. Henderson, B.C., "Reliably Predict Mixer IM Suppression," Microwaves & RF, Nov 1983, pp. 63-70, 132.
    
    
  41. Henkes, D.D. and S.C. Kwok, "Intermodulation: Concepts and Calculations," Applied Microwave & Wireless, Jul/Aug 1997, pp. 38-43.
    
    
  42. Heutmaker, M.S., J.R. Welch, and E. Wu, "Using Digital Modulation to Measure and Model RF Amplifier Distortion," Applied Microwave & Wireless, Mar/Apr 1997, pp. 34-39.
    
    
  43. Hilliard, J.K., "Distortion Tests by the Intermodulation Method," Proceedings of the IRE, Dec 1941, pp. 614-620.
    
    
  44. Hilling, A.E. and S.K. Salmon, "Intermodulation in Common-Emitter Transistor Amplifiers," Electronic Engineering, Jul 1968, pp. 360-364.
    
    
  45. Holtzman, J.M., "Nonlinear Distortion in Feedback Systems," Bell System Technical Journal, Apr 1968, pp. 503-509.
    
    
  46. Hsieh, C., "GaAs FET IMD Demands Better Standard," Microwaves, Jun 1982, pp. 93-94.
    
    
  47. Ierfino, N., "Increasing Linearity in Amplifiers with IF Predistortion," RF Design, Mar 1994, pp. 127-128.
    
    
  48. Ikeda, Y., K. Mori, T. Nozawa, K. Fujii, and T. Takagi, "A Consideration of the Compensation Method for the Gain Expansion Characteristics of Multi-Stage Amplifiers," 1997 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, Vol. 3, pp. 1101-1103.
    
    
  49. Jacobi, J.H., "IMD: Still Unclear After 20 Years," Microwaves & RF, Nov 1986, pp. 119-126.
    
    
  50. Jing, D., W.S. Chan, S.M. Li, and C.W. Li, "New Linearization Method Using Interstage Second Harmonic Enhancement," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, Vol. 8, No. 11, Nov 1998, pp. 402-404.
    
    
  51. Jones, Brian L., "Cross Modulation in Transistor Amplifiers," Solid State Design, Nov 1962, pp. 31-34.
    
    
  52. Jones, D.H., "Intermodulation Distortion in an Experimental Group Amplifier Using Transistors," Proceedings of the IEE, May 1959, pp. 472-480.
    
    
  53. Joshin, K., Y. Nakasha, T. Iwai, T. Miyashita, and S. Ohara, "Harmonic Feedback Circuit Effects on Intermodulation Products and Adjacent Channel Leakage Power in HBT Power Amplifier for 1.95 GHz Wide-Band CDMA Cellular Phones," IEICE Transactions on Electronics, Vol. E82-C, No. 5, May 1999, pp. 725-729.
    
    
  54. Kenney, T.J., I. Niva, S.D. Gray, and J. Dowling, "Device and Method for Detection and Reduction of Intermodulation Distortion," US Patent #6,009,129, 28 Dec 1999.
    
    
  55. Ketchledge, R.W., "Distortion in Feedback Amplifiers," Bell System Technical Journal, Nov 1955, pp. 1265-1285.
    
    
  56. Khadr, A.M. and R.H. Johnston, "Distortion in High-Frequency FET Amplifiers," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-9, No. 4, Aug 1974, pp. 180-189.
    
    
  57. Klimovitch, G.V., "On Robust Suppression of Third-Order Intermodulation Terms in Small-Signal Bipolar Amplifiers," 2000 IEEE International Microwave Symposium.
    
    
  58. Krikorian, N., "Bridge Method for Measuring Amplitude Intermodulation Distortion," RF Design, Mar 1995, pp. 30-34.
    
    
  59. Krikorian, N., "Bridge Method for Measuring Amplitude Intermodulation Distortion," RF Design, Mar 1995, pp. 30-34.
    
    
  60. Krisilov, Yu. D., "Nonlinear and Cross-Modulation Distortion in Transistor Tuned Amplifiers," Telecommunications and Radio Engineeering, Mar 1965, pp. 97-103.
    
    
  61. Kuo, Y.L., "Distortion Analysis of Bipolar Transistor Circuits," IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory, Vol. CT-20, No. 6, Nov. 1973, pp. 709-716.
    
    
  62. Lambert, W.H., "Second-Order Distortion in CATV Push-Pull Amplifiers," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 58, No. 7, Jul 1970, pp. 1057-1062.
    
    
  63. Leffel, M., "Intermodulation Distortion in a Multi-Signal Environment," RF Design, Jun 1995, pp. 78-84.
    
    
  64. Li, B. and S. Prasad, "Intermodulation Analysis of the Collector-Up InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HBT Using Volterra Series," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 46, No. 9, Sep 1998, pp. 1321-1323.
    
    
  65. Lieberman, D., "Cross-Modulation Figure of Merit for Transistor Amplifier Stages," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 58, No. 7, Jul 1970, pp. 1063-1071.
    
    
  66. Lindholm, Fredrik A., "Unified Modeling of Field-Effect Devices," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-6, No. 4, Aug 71, pp. 250-259.
    
    
  67. Lotsch, H.K.V., "Theory of Nonlinear Distortion Produced in a Semiconductor Diode," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. ED-15, No. 5, May 1968, pp. 294-307.
    
    
  68. Lotsch, H., "Third-Order Distortion and Cross Modulation in a Grounded Emitter Transistor Amplifier," IRE Transactions on Audio, Mar/Apr 1961, pp. 49-58.
    
    
  69. Lotsch, H., "Ubersicht uber die Nichtlinearen Verzerrungen in Transistorstufen, Einschliesslich der Kreuzmodulation," AUE, Vol. 14, No. 5, May 1960, pp. 204-216.
    
    
  70. Maas, S.A., "Two-Tone Intermodulation in Diode Mixers," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT-35, No. 3, Mar 1987, pp. 307-314.
    
    
  71. Maas, S.A., B.L. Nelson, and D.L. Tait, "Intermodulation in Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Technoques, Vol. 40, No. 3, Mar 1992, pp. 442-448.
    
    
  72. Maas, S.A. and D. Neilson, "Modeling GaAs MESFETs for Intermodulation Analysis," Microwave Journal, May 1991, pp. 295-300.
    
    
  73. MacDonald, J.R., "Nonlinear Distortion Reduction by Complementary Distortion," IRE Transactions on Audio, Sep/Oct 1959, pp. 128-133.
    
    
  74. Mallinckrodt, A.J., "Distortion in Transistor Amplifiers," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Jul 1963, pp. 288-289.
    
    
  75. Markel, J.D., "Shrinking Intermodulation," EDN, Aug 67, pp. 56-66.
    
    
  76. Marshall, N., "Optimizing Multi-Stage Amplifiers for Linearity," Microwaves, Part I - Apr 1974, pp 60- . Part II - May 1974, pp. 60-64.
    
    
  77. Martin, M., "Extrem Lineares Emfangereingangsmodul mit Grossem Dynamikbereich und sehr Geringen Intermodulationsvererrungen," Internationale Elektronische Rundschau, Vol. 4, 1975, pp. 73-76.
    
    
  78. Matare, H.F., "Intermodulation in Crystal Mixers," Proceedings of the IEEE, Mar 1965, p. 315.
    
    
  79. Meyer, N.I., "Non-Linear Distortion in Transistor Class-A Amplifiers at Low and Medium Frequencies," Proceedings of the IEE, May 1959, pp. 481-489.
    
    
  80. Meyer, N.I., "On the Variation of Transistor Small-Signal Parameters with Emitter Current and Collector Voltage," Journal of Electronics and Control, Vol. 4, No. 4, Apr 1958, pp. 305-334.
    
    
  81. Meyer, N.I., "Supplementary Note to the Paper: 'On the Variation of Transistor Small-Signal Parameters with Emitter Current and Collector Voltage'," Journal of Electronics and Control, Vol. 4, No. 4, Apr 1958, pp. 305-334.
    
    
  82. Meyer, Robert G., M.J. Shensa, and R. Eschenbach, "Cross Modulation and Intermodulation in Amplifiers at High Frequencies," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-7, No. 1, Feb 1972, pp. 16-23.
    
    
  83. Miller, D.M. and R.G. Meyer, "Nonlinearity and Cross Modulation in Field-Effect Transistors," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-6, No. 4, Aug 1971, pp. 244-260.
    
    
  84. Mulligan, J.H., "Amplitude Distortion in Transistor Feedback Amplifiers," Transactions of the AIEE, Part 3, Jul 1961, pp. 326-335.
    
    
  85. Narayanan, S., "An Analysis of Distortion in Bipolar Transistors Using Integral Charge Control Model and Volterra Series," IEEE TRansactions on Circuit Theory, Vol. CT-20, No. 4, Jul 1973, pp. 341-351.
    
    
  86. Narayanan, S., "Application of Volterra Series to Intermodulation Distortion Analysis of Transistor Feedback Amplifiers," IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory, Vol. CT-17, No. 4, Nov 1970, pp. 518-527.
    
    
  87. Narayanan, S., "Intermodulation Distortion of Cascaded Transistors," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-4, No. 3, Jun 1969, pp. 97-106.
    
    
  88. Narayanan, S., "Transistor Distortion Analysis Using Volterra Series Representation," Bell System Technical Journal, May/Jun 1967, pp. 991-1024.
    
    
  89. Orloff, L.M., "Intermodulation Analysis of Crystal Mixer," Proceedings of the IEEE, Feb 1964, pp. 173-179.
    
    
  90. Pawlan, J., "A Tutorial on Intermodulation Distortion and Non-Linearity in RF Systems," RF Design, Part I - Feb 1996, pp. 71-74. Part II - Mar 1996, pp. 74-86.
    
    
  91. Pedro, J.C. and J. Perez, "Design Techniques for Low In-Band Intermodulation Distortion Amplifiers," Microwave Journal, May 1994, pp. 94-104.
    
    
  92. Perlow, S.M., "Third-Order Distortion in Amplifiers and Mixers," RCA Review, Vol. 37, Jun 1976, pp. 234-266.
    
    
  93. Pitzalis, O., "High Level RF Transistor Distortion Correction Circuit," US Patent 3,443,241, 6 May 1969.
    
    
  94. Reynolds, J., "Intermodulation in Transistors," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Communications, Vol. VC-12, No. 1, Sep 1968, pp. 88-92.
    
    
  95. Reynolds, J., "Nonlinear Distortions and Their Cancellation in Transistors," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. ED-12, No. 11, Nov 1965, pp. 595-599.
    
    
  96. Riva, G.M., P.J. Beneteau, and E.D. Volta, "Amplitude Distortion in Transistor Amplifiers," Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 111, No. 3, Mar 1964, pp. 481-490.
    
    
  97. Rozov, V.M. and V.V. Martynkin, "Effect of External Feedback in a Common-Base Amplifier on Nonlinear Distortions," Telecommunications and Radio Engineering, Vol. 35/36, No. 10, Oct 1981, pp. 134-138.
    
    
  98. Sagers, R.C., "Intercept Point and Undesired Responses," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 32, No. 1, Feb 1983, pp. 121-133.
    
    
  99. Sandberg, I.W., "Signal Distortion in Nonlinear Feedback Systems," Bell System Technical Journal, Nov 1963, pp. 2533-2550.
    
    
  100. Sansen, W.M.C. and R.G. Meyer, "Characterization and Measurement of the Base and Emitter Resistances of Bipolar Transistors," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-7, No. 6, Dec 1972, pp. 492-498.
    
    
  101. Sansen, W.M.C. and R.G. Meyer, "Distortion in Bipolar Transistor Variable-Gain Amplifiers," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-8, No. 4, Aug 1973, pp. 275-282.
    
    
  102. Scarr, R.W.A., "TRANSISTORS IN LINEAR CIRCUITS," George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd., 1970 (section 5.3).
    
    
  103. Shaney, A.C., "Intermodulation - And its Relation to Distortion," Radio-Craft, May 1939, pp. 652-653, 689. (see correspondence in Aug 1939, p. 95, and comments in Proceedings of the IRE, Sep 1942, p. 429).
    
    
  104. Shea, Richard F., "PRINCIPLES OF TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS," Wiley, 1953 (sections 7.4.1 and 7.4.2).
    
    
  105. Shea, Richard F., "TRANSISTOR CIRCUIT ENGINEERING," Wiley, 1957 (section 9.1.1).
    
    
  106. Simmons, C.D. and J. Specialny, "Cross Modulation in Transistor Tuners," IRE Transactions on Broadcast and Television Receivers, Vol. BTR-8, No. 3, Nov 1962, pp. 96-100.
    
    
  107. Simons, Keneth A., "The Decibel Relationships Between Amplifier Distortion Products," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 58, No. 7, July 1970, pp. 1071-1086.
    
    
  108. Snyder, R.E., "Sweep Dynamic Range Into Mixer Measurements," Microwaves, May 1978, pp. 94-98.
    
    
  109. Staudinger, J. and J. Costa, "On the Simulation of Third-Order Intercept Points Using Spice," Microwave Journal, Sep 1992, pp. 142-151.
    
    
  110. Stewart, R.V. and J.G. Gardiner, "Contribution to Mixer Intermodulation Distortion of Nonlinearity in the Diode Forward Characteristics," Electronics Letters, Vol. 7, No. 10, 20 May 1971, pp. 279-281.
    
    
  111. Stoodley, L.G., "Intermodulation Analysis of Crystal Mixer," Proceedings of the IEEE, Aug 1964, pp. 984-985.
    
    
  112. Strid, E.W. and T.C. Duder, "A Study of Third-Order Intermodulation Products of GaAs Power FETs," 11th Asilomar Conference on Circuits, Systems, and Computers, 1977, pp. 146-151.
    
    
  113. Suematsu, N., M. Ono, S. Kubo, M. Uesugi, K. Hasegawa, K. Hiroshige, Y. Iyama, T. Takagi, and O. Ishida, "Intermodulation Distortion of Low Noise Silicon BJT and MOSFET Fabircated in BiCMOS Process," IEICE Transactions on Electronics, Vol. E82-C, No. 5, May 1999, pp. 692-698.
    
    
  114. Surana, D.C. and J.G. Gardiner, "Gain and Distortion Properties of FET Mixers and Modulators," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. EMC-16, No. 1, Feb 1974, pp. 29-38.
    
    
  115. Thomas, L.C., "Broadband Linearization of Transistor Amplifiers," Proceedings of the 1967 International Solid-State Circuits Conference, Session 9, pp. 88-89.
    
    
  116. Thomas, L.C., "Eliminating Broadband Distortion in Transistor Amplifiers," Bell System Technical Journal, Mar 1968, pp. 315-342.
    
    
  117. Thompson, T., "Exploring Intermodulation Distortion in RF Switching and Tuning Diodes," QST, Dec 1994, pp. 25-27.
    
    
  118. Tsironis, C., "Two Tone Intermodulation Measurements Using a Computer-Controlled Microwave Tuner," Microwave Journal, Oct 1989, pp. 161-163.
    
    
  119. Tucker, D.G., "Intermodulation Distortion in Rectifier Modulators," Wireless Engineer, Jun 1954, pp. 145-152.
    
    
  120. Tuil, J., "Intermodulation in Aerial Amplifiers," Electronic Applications, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1968, pp. 6-21.
    
    
  121. van der Heijden, M.P., H.C. de Graaff, and L.C.N. de Vreede, "A Novel Frequency Independent Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion Cancellation Technique for BJT Amplifiers," 2001 IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, pp. 163-166.
    
    
  122. van Dijkum, A.H.J.N. and J.J. Sips, "Cross Modulation and Modulation Distortion in A.M. Receivers Equipped with Transistors," Electronic Applications, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1959-1960, pp. 107-127.
    
    
  123. van Slagmaat, G.C., "Non-Linear Distortion of Transistorized Amplifiers," Electronic Applications, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1959-1960, pp. 159-168.
    
    
  124. Vennema, K., "Two-Tone Linearity in a 900 MHz Silicon Bipolar Class AB Amplifier," Microwave Journal, Feb 1996, pp. 88-98.
    
    
  125. Vogel, Jakob S., "Nonlinear Distortion and Mixing Processes in Field-Effect Transistors," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 55, No. 12, Dec 1967, pp. 2109-2116.
    
    
  126. Walker, H.P., "Sources of Intermodulation in Diode-Ring Mixers," The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol. 46, No. 5, May 1976, pp. 247-255.
    
    
  127. Wang, N.L., W.J. Ho, and J.A. Higgins, "AlGaAs/GaAs HBT Linearity Characteristics," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 42, No. 10, Oct 1994, pp. 1845-1850.
    
    
  128. Watanabe, S., S. Takatuka, K. Takagi, H. Kuroda, and Y. Oda, "Simulation and Experimental Results of Source Harmonic Tuning on Linearity of Power GaAs Under Class AB Operation," 1996 IEEE International Microwave Symposium, pp. 1771-1774.
    
    
  129. Weaver, S. and D. Wilcox, "Solutions to the Cross-Modulation Problems in Solid-State VHF-TV Tuners," IEEE Transactions on Broadcast and Television Receivers, Vol. BTR-13, No. 2, Jul 1967, pp. 9-17.
    
    
  130. Will, P., "Uncover Mixer Intermod with Swept Measurements," Microwaves, Nov 1978, pp. 84-91.
    
    
  131. Wilson, R., P. Radley, and D. Urquhart, "A Transistor Distortion Model," 1979 International Conference on Computer Aided Design and Manufacture of Electronic Components, Circuits, and Systems, pp. 110-113.
    
    
  132. Wilson, R., P. Radley, and D. Urquhart, "An Accurate Transistor Distortion Model for Circuit Analysis and Design," IEEE 1978 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp. 195-199.
    
    
  133. Wilson, S.E., "Evaluate the Distortion of Modular Cascades," Microwaves, Mar 1981, pp. 67-70.
    
    
  134. Winder, S., "Single Tone Intermodulation Testing," RF Design, Dec 1993, pp. 34-44.
    
    
  135. Witte, R.A., "Distortion Measurements Using a Spectrum Analyzer," RF Design, Sep 1992, pp. 75-84.
    
    
  136. Yen, C-S., "Distortion in Emitter-Driven Variable-Gain Pairs," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-14, No. 4, Aug 1979, pp. 771-773.
    
    
  137. Yousif, A.M. and J.G. Gardiner, "Distortion Effects in a Switching-Diode Modulator with Tuned Terminations," Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 119, No. 2, Feb 1972, pp. 143-148.
    
    
  138. Zavrazhnov, Yu.V., "Influence of the Diffusion Capacitance of the Base of a Transistor on the Nonlinear Distortions of an Amplifier," Telecommunications & Radio Engineering, Vol. 28/29, N0. 9, Sep 1974, pp. 127-129.
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