Wideband Transformer References
Updated 9 August 2004
    
    
  1. -----, "Design of HF Wideband Power Transformers," Philips Application Note ECO6907, 23 Mar 1998.
    
    
  2. -----, "Balun Transformers as Directional Couplers," Toko Application Note CF-118, Jun 1993.
    
    
  3. -----, "Balun Transformers for Mixers, Frequency Multipliers, and Broadband Impedance Matching," Toko Application Note CF-119, Jan 1993.
    
    
  4. -----, "Design of HF Wideband Power Transformers," Philips Application Note ECO7213, 23 Mar 1998.
    
    
  5. -----, "Power Transformers for the Frequency Range 30 - 80 MHz,"Philips Technical Publication ECO7703, 23 Mar 1998.
    
    
  6. -----, "Three Balun Designs for Push-Pull Amplifiers," Motorola Application Note AN-1034.
    
    
  7. Anderson, John M., "Wide Frequency Range Current Transformers," Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 42, No. 7, Jul 1971, pp. 915-926.
    
    
  8. Arockiasamy, R. and G. S. Pandian, "Analysis of 0-degree Hybrid Junction Constructed with Broad-Band Transmission-Line Transformer," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 70, No. 5, May 1982, pp. 512-514.
    
    
  9. Badger, G., "A New Class of Coaxial-Line Transformers," Ham Radio, Part I - Feb 1980, pp. 12-18 (see correction Mar 1980, p. 70). Part II - Mar 1980, pp. 18-29.
    
    
  10. Blocker, W., "The Behavior of the Wide-Band Transmission-Line Transformer for Nonoptimum Line Impedance," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 66, No. 4, Apr 1978, pp. 518-519.
    
    
  11. Blocksome, R.K., "Practical Wideband RF Power Transformers, Combiners, and Splitters," Proceedings RF Expo West, 1986, pp. 207-227.
    
    
  12. Bouny, Jean J., "Balun Transformers," US Patent 5,061,910, 29 Oct 1991.
    
    
  13. Breed, Gary A., "Transmission Line Transformer Basics," Applied Microwave & Wireless, ________, p. 60.
    
    
  14. Broxon, J.H. and D.K. Linkhart, "Twisted-Wire Transmission Lines," RF Design, June 1990, pp. 73-75.
    
    
  15. Burwasser, A.J., "Wideband Monofilar Autotransformers," RF Design, Jan/Feb 1981, pp. 38-44 (Part I), Mar/Apr 1981, pp. 20-29 (Part II).
    
    
  16. Carpentieri, E., "Equations Model Transmission-Line Transformers,"Microwaves & RF, Jun 1997, pp. 94-98.
    
    
  17. Carpentieri, E., "Model Characterizes Transmission-Line Transformers," Microwaves & RF, Nov 1996, pp. 73-80.
    
    
  18. Cline, J.F., "Radio-Frequency Autotransformers with Coaxial-Transmission-Line Windings," IEEE Transactions on Component Parts, Sep 1961, pp. 119-123.
    
    
  19. Cogitore, B., J.P. Keradec, and J. Barbaroux, "The Two-Winding Transformer: An Experimental Method to Obtain a Wide Frequency Range Equivalent Circuit," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 43, No. 2, Apr 1994, pp. 364-371.
    
    
  20. Cutkosky, R>D. and J.Q. Shields, "The Precision Measurement of Transformer Ratios," IRE Transactions on Instrumentation, Sep 1960, pp. 243-250.
    
    
  21. Dowell, P.L., "Effects of Eddy Currents in Transformer Windings," Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 113, No. 8, Aug 1966, pp. 1387-1394.
    
    
  22. Duerdoth, W.T., "Equivalent Capacitances of Transformer Windings," Wireless Engineer, June 1946, pp. 161-167.
    
    
  23. Dye, N. and H. Granberg, "Using RF Transistors: Compensation Terms and Networks," Electronics World & Wireless World, Sep 1994, pp. 772-774.
    
    
  24. Dye, N. and H. Granberg, "Using RF Transistors: Transforming Wideband Circuits," Electronics World & Wireless World, Jul 1994, pp. 606-612.
    
    
  25. Eachus, J., "Consideration in the Use of RF Transformer Ferrites," IEEE Transactions on Cable Television, Vol. CATV-4, No. 4, Oct 1979, pp. 137-145.
    
    
  26. Furukawa, T.I., T. Sato, and K. Yamasawa, "A Novel Transmission-Line Type High Frequency Transformer Using a Fine-Grain Mn-Zn Ferrite," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 35, No. 5, Sep 1999, pp. 3538-3540.
    
    
  27. Gillette, P.R., K. Oshima, and R.M. Rowe, "Measurement of Parameters Controlling Pulse Front Response of Transformers," IRE Transactions on Component Parts, Vol. 3, No. 1, Mar 1956, pp. 20-25.
    
    
  28. Gluszczak, T.J. and J.D. Harmer, "Transmission Line Transformers with Integer-Ratio Voltage Transformations," 1974 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 74), pp. 368-370.
    
    
  29. Granberg, H., "Broadband Transformers and Power Combining Techniques for RF," Motorola Application Note AN-749, Jun 1975.
    
    
  30. Granberg, H.O., "Combine Power Without Compromising Performance," Electronic Design, 19 Jul 1980, pp. 181-187.
    
    
  31. Guanella, G., "New Method of Impedance Matching in Radio-Frequency Circuits," The Brown-Boveri Review, Sep 1944, pp. 327-329.
    
    
  32. Haack, G.R., "Common-Mode Resonance Effects in High Frequency RF Transformers (Baluns)," 19th International Electronics Convention and Exhibition (IREECON 83), 1983, pp. 237-239.
    
    
  33. Hamilton, N.C., "RF Transformers Considered as Transmission Line Devices," Sixth International Conference on Radio Receivers and Associated Systems, 1995, pp. 109-113.
    
    
  34. Hilberg, W., "Einige Grundsatzliche Betrachtungen zu Breitband-Ubertragern," NTZ, Vol. 9, No. 9, Sep 1966, pp. 527-538.
    
    
  35. Hilbers, A.H., "Design of High-Frequency Wideband Power Transformers," Electronic Applications, Vol. 32, No. 1, Jan 1973, pp. 44-48.
    
    
  36. Hilbers, A.H., "High-Frequency Wideband Power Transformers," Electronic Applications, Vol. 30, No. 2, Apr 1971, pp. 64-73.
    
    
  37. Hollman, J.H. and F.A. Trenkle, "Design of a High-Power Wide-Band Balun for the High-Frequency Region," IEEE Transactions on Communications Electronmics, July 1963, pp. 363-367.
    
    
  38. Honnell, M.A. and H.W. Ragsdale, "High Frequency Response of Transformers," Tele-Tech, Mar 1952, pp. 46-47.
    
    
  39. Irish, R.T., "Method of Bandwidth Extension for the Ruthoff Transformer," Electronics Letters, Vol. 15, No. 24, 22 Nov 1979, pp. 790-791.
    
    
  40. Kajihara, Hitoshi H., "Design of Wide-Band R-F Transformers Utilizing a Synthesized Equivalent Network," Transactions of the AIEE, Pt. I, Jan 1957, pp. 802-805.
    
    
  41. Kaltenecker, R.S., H.L. Pfitzenmayer, and F.C. Wernett, "Circuit and Method for Balun Compensation," US Patent 5,416,451, 16 May 1995.
    
    
  42. Kelley, L.A., "Transformer Design," Radio Engineering. Part I - Dec 1934, pp. 7-11. Part II - Feb 1935, pp. 16-19.
    
    
  43. Kliger, G.A., V.I. Komissarov, and V.D. Kuznetsov, "Broadband Balancing Transformer," Telecommunications and Radio Engineering, Part 1, Vol. 26, Sep 1972, pp. 14-16.
    
    
  44. Krauss, H.L. and C.W. Allen, "Designing Toroidal Transformers to Optimize Wideband Performance," Electronics, 16 Aug 1973, pp. 113-116.
    
    
  45. Kreuzgruber, P., E. Bonek, A.L. Scholtz, and J. Osterreicher, "Modelling of Three-Port RF Transformers," Proceedings of the IEE, Part G, Vol. 138, No. 3, Jun 1991, pp. 325-328.
    
    
  46. Kunieda, H. and M. Onoda, "Equivalent Representation of Multiwire Transmission-Line Transformers and Its Applications to the Design of Hybrid Networks," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Vol. CAS-27, No. 3, Mar 1980, pp. 207-213.
    
    
  47. Lavers, J.D. and V. Bolborici, "Loss Comparison in the Design of High Frequency Inductors and Transformers," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 35, No. 5, Sep 1999, pp. 3541-3543.
    
    
  48. Lefferson, P., "Twisted Magnet Wire Transmission Line," IEEE Transactions on Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging, Vol. PHP-7, No. 4, Dec 1971, pp. 148-154.
    
    
  49. London, Simon Y., "A New Approach to Broadband Transmission Line Hybrid Design," Applied Microwave & Wireless, Sep 1999, pp. 34-46.
    
    
  50. London, S.E. and S.V. Tomashevich, "Limit Parameters of Wideband Transformers," Telecommunications and Radio Engineering, Part 2, Vol. 40, Dec 1985, pp. 77-80.
    
    
  51. London, S.E. and S.V. Tomashevich, "Line Transformers with Fractional Transformation Factor," Telecommunications and Radio Engineering, Vol. 28/29, Apr 1974, pp. 129-130.
    
    
  52. Lord, H.W., "The Design of Broad-Band Transformers for Linear Electronic Circuits," AIEE Transactions, Vol. 69, 1950, pp. 1005-1010.
    
    
  53. Martin, M., "Ferrite Transformers Minimize Losses in RF Amplifiers," Microwaves & RF, May 1990, pp. 117-126.
    
    
  54. Maurice, D. and R.H. Minns, "Very-Wide Band Radio-Frequency Transformers," Wireless Engineer, June 1947, pp. 168-177 (Part I) and July 1947, pp. 209-216 (Part II).
    
    
  55. McClure, D.A., "Broadband Transmission Line Transformer Family Matches a Wide Range of Impedances," RF Design, Feb 1994, pp. 62-66 (Part I), and May 1994, pp. 40-49 (Part II).
    
    
  56. McWhorter, Mark, "Broadband RF Transformer Directional Couplers," RF Design, July 1991, pp. 53-58.
    
    
  57. Mgombelo, H.R., "Effect of Length of Each Transmission Line in Roy Transformer on Wideband Matching," Electronics Letters, Vol. 17, No. 12, 11 Jun 1981, pp. 402-403.
    
    
  58. Myer, Daniel, "Synthesis of Equal Delay Transmission Line Transformer Networks," Microwave Journal, March 1992, pp. 106-114.
    
    
  59. Nagle, J.J., "High-Performance Broadband Balun," Ham Radio, Feb 1980, pp. 28-34.
    
    
  60. Nagle, J.J., "The Half-Wave Balun: Theory and Application," Ham Radio, Sep 1980, pp. 32-35.
    
    
  61. Nagle, J.J., "Use Wideband Autotransformers in RF Systems," Electronic Design, 2 Feb 1976, pp. 64-70.
    
    
  62. Nishizuka, N., M. Sato, and Y. Li, "Analysis of Frequency Characteristics of Small-Sized Wide-Band Compound Transformers," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 34, No. 4, Jul 1998, pp. 1348-1350.
    
    
  63. Oltman, G., "The Compensated Balun," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques," Vol. 14, No. 3, Mar 1966, pp. 112-119.
    
    
  64. O'Meara, T.R., "A Distributed-Parameter Approach to the High-Frequency Network Representation of Wide-Band Transformers," IRE Transactions on Component Parts, Mar 1961, pp. 23-30.
    
    
  65. O'Meara, T.R., "Analysis and Synthesis with the 'Complete' Equivalent Circuit for the Wide-Band Transformer," AIEE Transactions, Mar 1962, pp. 55-62.
    
    
  66. O'Meara, T.R., "Wide-Band Transformers and Associated Coupling Networks," Electro-Technology, Sep 1962, pp. 80-89.
    
    
  67. Pandian, G. Soundra, "Broadband RF Transformers and Components Constructed with Twisted Multiwire Transmission-Lines," PhD Thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, December 1983.
    
    
  68. Pandian, G.S., "Compensated Broad-Band Two-Way 0-degree Hybrid Power Splitters and Combiners," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 71, No. 4, Apr 1983, pp. 533-534.
    
    
  69. Pandian, G.S. and R. Arockiasamy, "Analysis of 0-degree Hybrid Junction Constructed With Broad-Band Transmission-Line Transformer," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 70, No. 5, May 1982, pp. 512-514 (see further comments in Proc IEEE, Mar 1983, pp. 439-440).
    
    
  70. Pandian, G.S. and R. Arockiasamy, "A Further Comment on 'Analysis of 0-degree Hybrid Junction Constructed With Broad-Band Transmission-Line Transformer'," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 71, No. 3, Mar 1983, pp. 439-440.
    
    
  71. Pandian, G.S. and R. Arockiasamy, "Equivalent Representation of Broad-Band Transmission-Line Transformer with Vector Impedances," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 69, No. 10, Oct 1981, pp. 1368-1369. (see comments and reply in Proc IEEE, Dec 1982, pp. 1455-1456).
    
    
  72. Pandian, G.S. and R. Arockiasamy, "High-Frequency Analysis on Broad-Band 0-degree Hybrid Junction: Distributed Parameter Approach," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 71, No. 3, Mar 1983, pp. 438-439.
    
    
  73. Pitzalis, O., "Practical Design Information for Broadband Transmission Line Transformers," Proceedings of the IEEE, Apr 1968, pp. 738-739.
    
    
  74. Pitzalis, O. and Thomas P. Couse, "Broadband Transformer Design for RF Transistor Power Amplifiers," Army Electronics Command, Jul 1968, NTIS AD-676 816.
    
    
  75. Pitzalis, O. and T.P.M. Couse, "Broadband Transformer Design for RF Transistor Power Amplifiers," 1968 Electronic Components Conference, pp. 207-216.
    
    
  76. Reddy, Prabhakara, "Broad Band Hybrid Signal Splitter," US Patent 4,789,845, 6 Dec 1988.
    
    
  77. Riddle, Alfy, "Ferrite and Wire Baluns with Under 1dB Loss to 2.5 GHz," Proceedings 1998 IEEE International Microwave Symposium, pp. 617-620.
    
    
  78. Roy, S.C.D., "A Transmission Line Transformer Having Frequency Independent Matching Properties," International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, Vol. 8, 1980, pp. 55-64.
    
    
  79. Ruthroff, C.L., "Some Broad-Band Transformers," Proceedings of the IRE, Aug 1959, pp. 1337-1342.
    
    
  80. Sato, S. and Y. Naito, "Line-Type Transformer Using a Ferrite Core," Electronics and Communications in Japan, Vol. 55-C, No. 10, Oct 1972, pp. 122-126.
    
    
  81. Saunders, R., "Use of Ferrite Cores in RF Broadband Transformers," Amateur Radio, Nov 2001, pp. 4-6.
    
    
  82. Sevick, J., "Broadband Matching Transformers Can Handle Many Kilowatts," Electronics, 25 Nov 1976, pp. 123-128.
    
    
  83. Sevick, J., BUILDING AND USING BALUNS AND UNUNS, CQ Communications, 1994.
    
    
  84. Sevick, J., TRANSMISSION LINE TRANSFORMERS (1st ed.), ARRL, 1987.
    
    
  85. Sevick, J., TRANSMISSION LINE TRANSFORMERS (2nd ed.), ARRL, 1990.
    
    
  86. Sevick, J., TRANSMISSION LINE TRANSFORMERS (4th ed.), Noble Publishing, 2001.
    
    
  87. Shimada, Y., "Input Impedance Analysis of 1:1 Balun," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques," Vol. 18, No. 5, May 1970, pp. 264-269.
    
    
  88. Simburger, W., H-D. Wohlmuth, P. Weger, and A. Heinz, "A Monolithic Transformer Coupled 5-W Silicon Power Amplifier with 59% PAE at 0.9 GHz," IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 34, No. 12, Dec 1999, pp. 1881-1892.
    
    
  89. Simons, K.A., "Comments on 'Equivalent Representation of Broad-Band Transmission-Line Transformer with Vector Impedances'," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 70, No. 12, Dec 1982, pp. 1455-1457.
    
    
  90. Simons, Keneth A., "Directional Coupler," US Patent 3,048,798, 7 Aug 1962.
    
    
  91. Sontheimer, Carl G. and Raymond E. Fredrick, "Broadband Directional Coupler," US Patent 3,426,298, 4 Feb 1969.
    
    
  92. Snelling, E.C., SOFT FERRITES: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS (2nd ed.), Butterworths, 1988, chapter 7.
    
    
  93. Stechenko, V.I., A.V. Talaluev, and I.A. Aksarin, "Wide-Band Power Divider," Radioelectronics and Communications Systems, Vol. 27, No. 5, 1984, pp. 83-85.
    
    
  94. Titterington, R.G., "The Ferrite-Cored Balun Transformer," Radio Communication, March 1982, pp. 216-220.
    
    
  95. Trask, C., "Wideband Transformers: An Intuituve Approach to Models, Characterization and Design," Applied Microwave & Wireless, Nov 2001, pp. 30-41.
    
    
  96. Turrin, R.H., "Application of Broad-Band Balun Transformers," QST, Apr 1969, pp. 42-43.
    
    
  97. Turrin, R., "Broad-Band Balun Transformers," QST, Aug 1964, pp. 33-35.
    
    
  98. Uvbarkh, V.I., "Design of Broadband Input and Interstage Balancing and Transforming Networks for Transistorized Power Amplifiers," Telecommunications and Radio Engineering," Part 2, Vol. 40, Dec 1985, pp. 83-87.
    
    
  99. Woodward, O.M., "Balance Measurements on Balun Transformers," Electronics, Sep 1953, pp. 188-191.
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