Preliminary graphics: Will ultimately print on 1/8" coroplast
Modified HCF-305 - Front view
"Island Roadrunner" in the 4th of July parade.
... with yours truly at the wheel
View of Island Roadrunner Rear Door Wind Fairing
Rear tail light (modified LEDs) with turn signals
Rear door also serves as an effective wind fairing
Island Roadrunner pressed into service: School Reform
Island Roadrunner at Spritzers Cafe, Alameda, CA
(local patrons trying out the vehicle)
Island Roadrunner at Java Rama, Alameda, CA
If you are planning to purchase a HCF-305 mobility scooter as a practical, high performance version of a wheelchair, we
advise against it! The HCF-305, while a good beginning platform for developing electric powered transportation for the
hobbyist, is just too fast for the medical or geriatric user. This webspace is for the "hacker" of the HCF-305.
That is, for those who are experimenting with it to determine its capabilities and possibilities as a LEV (Light Electric
Vehicle), and, somehow, feel it to be a vehicle with great potential. Read on...
LEV (Light Electric Vehicle) Explained:
NEVs (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle) is the mainstream term for small, low
speed transportation, for quick errands around town. But a typical NEV can weigh as much as 2,000 pounds, and cruise
at 25-35 mph (40 - 57 kph). But such vehicles are only part of the many new and exciting electric vehicles that are being
developed and tested, before being released to the general public, as tried and proven, and reliable, transportation.
My wife and I initially set out to buy a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle, but were disappointed
with a test run in a new demo car. We soon discovered that most manufactured electric cars on the market have
unsatisfactory performance, for the price.
Enter the LEV (Light Electric Vehicle). The most famous of these, of course, is
the Segway. But this category also includes electric powered bicycles, scooters, four-wheeled recumbent bicycles and, now,
modified high performance mobility vehicles -and even highway speed vehicles. Most weighing little more than the
rider(s), the Light Electric Vehicle is powered transportation distilled to its essence.
The Light Electric Vehicle is proving to be the "VoltsWagen of Electric Cars", as new, fast,
lightweight, affordable and efficient models are appearing that are beginning to take the place of traditional internal
combustion powered vehicles.
I initially planned to modify an existing internal combustion engine powered compact car, into
an electric car. But the state of California only allows 500 modified gas-to-electric cars a year to be registered -and
all of these are registered the first business day of January. And with 25,000 electric cars on the road in California, the
odds were quite slim that I would be able to get such an electric vehicle approved.
So... I decided to build an electric vehicle from off-the-shelf components, using existing
technology. The goal was to define auto transportation, down to the basic motor vehicle errand: One passenger
plus a sizeable payload, to and from destinations of up to 5 or 6 miles away, rapidly, all at an affordable price.
And electric mobility scooters seemed to already be on the right track -they just needed
to run faster. The HCF-305 seemed uniquely suited for the project.
There is also a new category: PEV's (Personal Electric Vehicle), to further narrow down and classify
electric wheelchairs, mobility scooters, and even powered skateboards and bicycles, but "PEV" just sounds too geriatric
for the HCF-305, even though the PEV class includes single passenger vehicles weighing 2,000 pounds or more.
The purpose of this webspace is to post clear and factual information about
the HCF-305 "JP Cruiser" Electric Scooter and serve as a forum for the exchange of information, technical notes, and
under normal load) / turns clockwise, when viewed from the
shaft, to propel the HCF-305 forward. - Controller: electronic speed controller (ESC) - rated for a 24 volt DC 600 watt motor, Model#
motor's speed is fully controllable from 0 to about 15 mph using a solid
state motor controller. Using
a throttle on the right handlebar grip, full control of the HCF-305's
speed and acceleration is achieved.
A motor controller is far better and more efficient than
relays or contactors, provided the controller has been engineered
to survive the rigors of
The controller is designed to handle up to a 42Amp battery
pack. - Battery: Model#WP20-24E
24V / 20 Ah sealed lead acid (each battery)
Each battery is 5-3/4" wide x 7" long x 6-1/2" tall
26.95# per battery x2 = 53.9# total
The two batteries are parallel wired, producing a 24V / 40 Ah power source, that is
@ 24V and enters the electrical system of the vehicle, via
the Controller, as 24V.
- Battery Charger: CTE Corporation Model# 4C24040
Input - 110V - 240V AC (manual switch)
- 28.8V DC / 4 Amps DC - Electrical System: Headlight, brake light, horn, and turn signals operate as a 24Volt
Electronic Controller: There are 18 wires + 1 throttle cable connecting to the controller.
5th wheel drum brake detail.
5th wheel drive pulley (aluminum gears)
Battery Indicator + forward-reverse switch.
The battery indicator, the electric car's equivalent of a fuel guage, is an
indespensible tool for the electric vehicle. The HCF-305 battery indicator has three, colored led's that provide a reliable
signal of the power remaining in the batteries. It's important to note that the battery indicator on the HCF-305 is only reliable
after the vehicle has reached cruising speed. There's a reason for this. Read on.
Here is what the lights mean: - All 3 lights lit: Battery pack is
fully charged. - Red led and amber led are fully lit, but the green led is intermittant -or
flashing: 37% (of full charge) remaining in the battery pack. - Red led is fully lit, but the amber led is intermittant
-or flashing. The green led is unlit: 19% (of full charge) remaining in the battery pack.
- Red led is intermittant -or flashing. Both the amber and green leds are unlit: 1% (of full charge)
remaining in the battery pack.
The battery indicator is connected to a sophisticated microprocessor, in the
electronic controller, that constantly evaluates the power remaining in the battery, and factors it in with your cruising
speed. For example, while cruising at maximum speed on an errand, the green led light may begin flashing. And, somehow, your
errand has placed you well outside the maximum cruising radius, well past the half-way point, of the HCF-305's range. Does
this mean that you'll have to turn around and drive 74% of the way back home, then dismount and push your HCF-305 (almost
as easy as pushing a bicycle, by the way) the rest of the way home? Not if you simply cruise at a slower speed, such
as 2/3 of maximum speed, causing the green led to light up again. You could then easily drive all the way home.
The battery indicator is also a valuable tool to assist you in driving as
efficiently as possible. For example, rapid acceleration, out of a stop light or stop sign, can rob the HCF-305 of almost
40% of its power that it would achieve in an open cross-country run, without stops. Rapid acceleration (and steep hills)
will also greatly reduce the lifespan of the battery pack. But the battery indicator's LEDs can actually coach you acceleration:
Keeping the green LED light lit, during acceleration, by slightly cutting back on the throttle, will considerably extend the
driving range in neighborhood stop-and-go traffic
The battery indicator circuit also has an electronic beeper, completely independent
of the horn, that provides brief, safety-alert signal when the vehicle is turned on, with the key-locked master switch.
The battery indicator can also indicate trouble in the battery pack. For example,
if the all 3 lights are lit, while running an errand, then, suddenly, only the red light remains lit (with the amber led phase
only lasting briefly, or non-existant), is a clear indication of a bad battery somewhare in the battery pack.
*** For maximum battery pack life, do not continue to run your HCF-305 after
the green light turns off. Either dismount and push your HCF-305 home or throttle back to a slower cruising
speed, until the green light turns back on, and return home. To drive your HCF-305 until it barely craws back home
(only amber led and/or red led lit) is commonly known as "batterycide". Running your HCF-305 until only the red and
amber LEDs remain lit (or especially if only the red LED remains lit) will reduce the life of the battery pack to 120
charge cycles or less. See below for details as to how to extend the life of your battery pack.
To determine the maximum range (with maximum battery pack life) of your HCF-305,
run a typical errand at normal cruising speed, until the green light turns off. Carefully make note of the mileage and
the temperature of the battery pack. And turn your HCF-305 off and push it home.
Apply that range and temperature to the following chart:
100 degrees Fahrenheit: 128% range
90 degrees Fahrenheit: 119% range
80 degrees Fahrenheit: 109% range
70 degrees Fahrenheit: 100% range
60 degrees Fahrenheit: 87% range
50 degrees Fahrenheit: 74% range
40 degrees Fahrenheit: 61% range
30 degrees Fahrenheit: 47% range
Doing so will greatly help you efficiently plan your errands, for any time
of the year, and maximize battery pack life (240 charge cycles, or more).
Issues with the HCF-305:
- The HCF-305 is no longer being produced. Manufacturing seems to
have ended in 2004.
- The batteries originally installed in the HCF-305 are simply not
designed to cruise at 12mph for any length of time. The HCF-305, like many electric powered "fun" vehicles, is powered by
compact and lightweight sealed lead acid batteries (sla's for short) that, while are deep cycle, are not true fast discharge
batteries. In short, the batteries will quickly "boil off" (deplete) their electrolyte after several test runs, 5 to 7 miles
each, on a flat, level, paved surface, for about 25 to 30 total miles. (see the Maintenance and Repairs on the HCF-305
web page for a better battery pack replacement)
But don't rush to condem the HCF-305 manufacturer, as a visit to any
local electric car club meeting (check out the "Electric Automobile Association" in the "links" page of this webspace) will
reveal that serious battery issues commonly plague almost all electric car owners. Even the popular -and pricey, hybrid
gas/electric cars quickly develop problems with battery pack performance, which become obvious when the
owner attempts to run errands around the community using electric power alone.
But I've found the solution to the HCF-305 battery issues, as
the new, unorthodox battery pack of flooded sla-agm batteries can be expected to last for 2,000miles / 240 charge
cycles -and even more with the PowerCheq Electronic Battery String Equalizers added. Stay posted.
The advertised 12 degree slope is simply a guideline for the occasional use of a ramp, say, about 14 feet long and 3 feet
tall. If one attempts to drive the HCF-305 up a hill, the Controller unit will quickly burn out. The HCF-305 is designed to,
ideally, negotiate smooth, level surfaces, with occasional 5% grades (1 foot rise every 20 feet).
- Stability: The HCF-305 has stability issues. Out of the crate, when
set up according to the HCF-305 Operator Manual, the steering column of the HCF-305 has excessive play. This looseness degrades
the stability of the vehicle, creating a disturbing "shimmy" effect, not unlike that of a worn out hydraulic steering dampener
in a typical full size auto. But this is easily corrected (see the Maintenance and Repairs on the HCF-305 web page to
easily remedy this problem).
- There is a structural weakness in the frame that supports the left and
right rear wheel suspension. Hard driving, at full cruising speed over medium-rough paved surfaces will bend the rear
frame and cause both wheels to splay outwards, where the tires meet the pavement. This causes instability, a rougher
ride, and greatly reduces the rolling efficiency of the vehicle (see the Maintenance and Repairs on the HCF-305 web page for
a simple modification).
- The rake angle of the HCF-305's front wheels are backwards! Look carefully at any bicycle,
or motorcycle, and you'll notice that the front wheel slants well forward of the handlebars. A typical motorcycle, for example, has
a positive rake angle of about 30 degrees. The rake angle of a well designed bicycle, or motorcycle, provides inherent stability,
so that the rider can easily ride without any hands on the handlebars, yet continue in a straight line. But with the HCF-305,
the problem can be corrected (see the Maintenance and Repairs on the HCF-305 web page for detailed instructions).
The HCF-305 actually has 5 - 12.5" diameter wheels. The 5th wheel
is positioned directly under the rider, as the drive wheel. The vehicle has independent suspension on 4 wheels. But problem
is that the 5th wheel is a hard tail, and unlike the other wheels, does not have a shock absorber. This can sometimes cause
a side-to-side rocking motion that will sometimes make the HCF-305 feel unstable when making tight turns, or when encountering
uneven road surfaces (see the Maintenance and Repairs on the HCF-305 web page for increasing tire pressures for better
stability). Another adjustment is to tighten all four shock absorbers down to their maximum stiffness (see the Maintenance
and Repairs on the HCF-305 web page). Yet another fix is to get rid of the standard seat that came with
the vehicle and replace it with a form-fitting bucket seat, with a lower center of gravity, and positioned 2-3 inches forward,
to enable the front wheels to provide stability. The bucket seat will hold the rider firmly in place, whereas the standard
flat, wide seat allows the rider to shift side-to-side, tending to exaggerate stability issues with the
The HCF-305 has a turning radius of 11.6 feet (3.5 meters). Most 4-wheeled mobility scooters
have a turning radius of 5 feet (1.5 meters). While, at first glance, this may seem to be a conservative, gradual turn, the
HCF-305 has a cruising speed that is 3 times as fast as most mobility scooters. And a 11.6 feet (3.5 meters) turning radius
is quite responsive, at full speed, a possible challenge for those who are not alert, quick, and on top of it.
As a result, the HCF-305, when cruising at top speed, requires both hands on the steering handles. Tuning a radio, or waving
to people, while at maximum speed, is not recommended. But, for quickly running errands, full cruising speed is the preferred,
practical mode for most owners of the HCF-305. The
HCF-305 is only 24-1/2" wide, so occasional stability issues are, simply, the nature of the beast for a vehicle that
is fast enough, yet narrow enough, to fit in and flow with the traffic.
But, with the above changes made, the HCF-305 is actually quite stable.
It may simply feel unstable, due to the road vibration (when compared to an automobile) and the way the HCF-305 does not lean
into turns. But strapped into the high-back bucket seat and wearing a bicycle helmet, I've tried to "roll" it by
taking sharp turns at maximum speed, but the vehicle holds well in all driving conditions, even after the custom roof
- The HCF-305 brakes are primarily designed to stop forward motion. Reverse braking is weak,
but is assisted by the torque from the motor. The reason is that all 3 brakes on the HCF-305 are actually a
drum, mounted to the wheel, encircled by a compression band. These brakes are good at stopping forward motion,
but because of the way their leverage is applied they don't work as well, at retarding backward motion, such as on an
incline. But the HCF-305 runs quite slow, in reverse, so this usually isn't an issue.
- The HCF-305 motor overload sensor. While this valuable feature will prevent the motor
from overheating and burning out, the sensor-activated circuit breaker can sometimes kick in at the darndest times, such
as when speeding through a busy intersection, etc.. A fast run at maximum cruising speed (13.7 mph), for about 4.25 miles,
will raise the motor temperature to 126 degrees Fahrenheit, causing a heat sensor, inside the motor, to signal the controller,
which shuts down the power, bringing the HCF-305 to come to a complete stop. A short wait, of a few minutes, is required for the
motor to cool off, and the vehicle's circuit breaker can be easily reset, simply by pushing in the button (see the Maintenance and Repairs on the HCF-305 web page for the details).
But this trait, overheating and automatic shut-down of the motor, can be completely
avoided by simply speeding up to maximum speed, and then easing back slightly on the throttle until there is a noticeable
decrease in the speed of the vehicle, then increasing the throttle slightly. This sustainable cruising speed, 96% of
maximum speed, will allow the motor to run without overheating the motor, allowing you to cruise like a pro. This simple,
but effective technique quickly becomes second-nature when driving the vehicle.
Excessive Speed: While this is not at all a problem with the amateur electric car buff, the HCF-305 quickly gained
notoriety with the established medical mobility retailers. While most of their merchandise was designed to max out at 4 miles
per hour, police departments and security staffs started filing reports of 80 year old grannies, on their new HCF-305's, speeding
through indoor retail malls at 12 miles per hour! The HCF-305's were quickly pulled from their inventories -only to be quickly
bought up and sold by the motorized skateboard retailers. But, on the other hand, full cruising at speed is highly desirable
for taking quick errands on neighborhood streets and around town.
- Flat tire: Pushing your HCF-305 home,
with a dead battery pack, is almost as easy as pushing a bicycle. But pushing your HCF-305, with a flat tire, could be a
real drag. But, fortunately, a flat tire on the HCF-305 is an extremely rare event. Carrying a spare for the HCF-305
is not a practical option, since the front wheels are not interchangeable with the rear wheels, and the 5th powered wheel
is not interchangeable with either. In fact, to fix a flat tire on the 5th wheel requires that the entire unit be disassembled.
Anticipating this problem, the HCF manufacturer installed super heavy duty inner tubes in the tires of every
HCF-305 -the heaviest inner tubes we've ever seen. They should stand up to a lot of mileage, without a thorn or small
tack causing any difficulty (see the Maintenance and Repairs on the HCF-305 web page for tire maintenance tips). So far,
over 2,400 miles have been logged on my HCF-305's 12-1/2" diameter tires, without a flat -or so much as a leak. That's
the equivalent of about 5,000 miles, on a 26" diameter tire, without a flat!
- Wide turning Radius. The HCF-305 has a turning radius of 11.6 feet (3.5 meters). Most 4-wheeled mobility
scooters have a turning radius of 5 feet (1.5 meters). This makes it unsuitable for most indoor use. But the HCF-305 was designed
for the open road, covering miles in a very short time. So, this disadvantage is simply a matter of opinion.
- The headlight of the HCF-305 is just too weak for nighttime use. Close examination shows the light
to be nothing more than a standard 5 watt, 24V tungsten filament bulb (see the Maintenance and Repairs on the HCF-305 web
page for simple tips for building a better LED headlight and tail light system).
- Ecological: The HCF-305, as well as most electric vehicles, do pollute the environment, to some degree.
Most electric cars in the world are, essentially, coal-powered. As such, the simple act of charging the HCF-305 releases 1-1/8
pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, via the local power plant (compared to 19 pounds of carbon dioxide from one
gallon of gasoline burned in an internal combustion engine). But when compared to a typical internal combustion powered vehicle,
of equivalent speed and payload, electric vehicles ultimately produce only about 15% of such emissions. And
coal-fueled power plants, which generate a major portion of electricity to the power grid, actually run 400% to 500% more efficiently than a typical internal combustion engine -and also scrub their own exhaust. The United
States has more coal than the Middle East has oil. So "coal-powered" electric cars are certainly the short-term answer (but
only short-term) to our immediate fuel crisis. And don't forget that electric vehicles can, and ultimately will, use
electricity from anywhere, including sustainable energy resources (hydro-electric, geothermal, wind and
sun). In fact, the local electric utility in my area generates 80% of its power from renewable, sustainable energy sources
(mostly geothermal). Electric cars enjoyed a revival, of sorts, in the 1970's, when everyone truly felt
that electric power, generated by clean, nuclear fusion, was on the verge of a breakthrough. That didn't happen, but the trend
towards electric cars stubbornly holds its own.
- Economy?: All electric vehicles are relatively expensive to
operate. The typical internal combustion powered compact car cost about $ 0.58 a mile to operate. The typical compact electric
powered car, with internal rechargeable batteries, costs about$ 5.00 to $ 10.00 per mile to operate (don't kid yourself, you're
NOT going to put 10,000 miles a year on that electric auto). The HCF-305 will will cost about $ 0.50 to $ 1.00, per mile,
to operate, when factored over the expected life of the vehicle.
Advantages of the HCF-305:
- Even though manufacturing of the HCF-305 ended in 2004, so many were manufactured
and distributed that there seems to be no shortage of OEM parts, via many suppliers on the internet.
- The HCF-305 is, simply, comfortable to ride in. The rider sets upright,
not crouching as in a small compact car, but completely upright, as in a minivan, with feet flat on the floor.
- The HCF-305 is only 24-1/2" wide. Most bicycle trailers are about 31"
wide. And the popular, single-seat Rhoades Car (which was actually our second choice) is 37" wide. The point is, that while
4-wheeled electric bicycles may be legal in most towns, the HCF-305 will be far more likely to fit
in with the flow, since it will not impede in the flow of motorized traffic, as well as designated bike lane traffic.
- 12.3 mph (19.8 kph) maximum speed -14 mph (22.5kph) with replacement (and modified) PowerSonic
batteries (see below), is also the typical cruising speed on smooth, paved surfaces. This is the same speed that a typical
bicyclist produces on a typical ten-speed bicycle. 12.3 mph is an efficient -and safe, speed to quickly run quick
errands around the community and even do light hauling, with a bicycle trailer.
- The HCF-305 has an unusually sophisticated electronic controller (rated for a 24
Volt, 42 Amp battery pack) that carefully monitors the parts and functions of the vehicle. For example, it controls the speed
of the 600 watt motor with variable pulses of electricity, creating high motor torque -even at low speeds, without generating
wasteful heat as a by-product.
The unit also shuts down the vehicle when power in the batteries drop below 40% capacity, greatly
extending the service life of the battery pack.
The unit also will shut down the power up if the vehicle enters too steep an incline.
The motor will never burn out, because an internal heat sensor signals a microprocessor, in the
controller, which makes the decision, whether or not, to shut down the vehicle, based on the rate of temperature rise and
speed of the vehicle, and activates the circuit breaker, which causes the button to pop out to its extended position, bringing
the vehicle to a halt.
Another microprocessor, in the controller, monitors motor speed and remaining power in the
battery pack, and factors the two together to visually display the electronic equivalent of a fuel guage, on the handlebar
Whenever the brakes are applied, the controller turns off power to the motor.
From a stand-still, when the handlebar throttle is turned, to move the vehicle forward
-or backward, the controller delays electrical current to the motor, for about one second, as a valuable safety feature.
Whenever the HCF-305 is hauling too heavy a load, or attempting to negotiate to steep an
incline, or trying to accelerate too rapidly while carrying (or pulling) too heavy a load, the electronic controller activates
the circuit breaker, which causes the button to pop out to its extended position, bringing the vehicle to a halt.
- Large wheel size: The 12-1/2 inch diameter wheels are an unusually large wheel diameter for
mobility scooters, especially with the narrow tires. This keeps rolling resistance to a minimum, while providing a smooth
ride. The HCF-305 is originally quipped with knobby tires, for all terrains. Smooth street tires are recommended when the
time comes to replace them, as they are more efficient, with much less rolling resistance.
- The HCF-305, inspite of its initial battery and stability problems, is
an economical, well-built platform to develop a Light Electric Vehicle on. Those who lament the days when cars were
simpler, when they could tune up their internal combustion motors and completely service and modify their vehicles, the
Light Electric Vehicle offers the perfect opportunity, a wide open field of challanges and innovation -on a cottage
- The physics of most electric (and hybrid) cars are just, simply, wrong.
It makes no sense to transport one person across town in a 2,000 pound electric car, when a 2,000 car, with an internal
combustion engine, is actually more efficient.
The just-under-200-pound HCF-305 vehicle, simply, makes ecological sense.
An excellent replacement seat for the HCF-305!
If you plan to use your modified HCF-305 on local streets,
it's a good idea to install a high-back bucket seat and harness that will provide some protection.
A lightweight bucket seat, with an optional padded leatherette covering
and seatbelt harness: Desert Design & Fabrication LLC 340
W. 32nd St. #641 Yuma, Arizona 85364
I'll be uploading photos, on a regular basis, of a still unfinished
ultra lightweight body and convertable top, complete with 1/8" plexiglass curved/swept-back windshield, roof, and rear
door windows. The structure is made with pure grain Douglas Fir strips, with curved 3/16" Birch plywood cross-members and
An ultralight aircraft bucket seat has also been added, complete with a
In addition, a lightweight aluminum and nylon canvas bicycle trailer has
been modified by adding a reinforced, but lightweight 3/16" Birch plywood flatbed, for light, but bulky, hauling.
The battery issues finally resolved, test runs over rough surfaces
proved that the lightweight wooden framework is solid and able to take the stresses required for utility use. The vehicle
also seems more stable at full cruising speed.
Lightweight side doors have been added, which, when closed, add strength
and rigidity to the over-all wooden framework.
Also, an aerodynamic, wedge-shaped door has been built and mounted
to the rear of the wooden body structure to give the HCF-305 good penetration into strong headwinds. Aerodynamics are
not much of a factor with the modified HCF-305 until cruising speeds of 12mph and above are achieved. But the vehicle,
without the trailer, still creates 7 pounds of aerodnamic drag at regular cruising speed (15 mph), at sea level.
Work in progress
(cardboard templates will be replaced with full color digitally imaged panels)
Modified HCF-305 and modified bicycle trailer.
(nylon fabric fairing, on the trailer, has since been reversed, for improved aerodynamics)
View of re-positioned tail light, on rear door.
The arrangement makes wiring the trailer unnecessary.
24VDC windshield wiper
Modified HCF-305: Front-oblique view.
Modified bicycle trailer: flat-bed construction detail.
Ultralight aircraft bucket seat mounted on the HCF-305, for comfort, stability, & added protection.
Wooden front mounting bracket detail:
(single steel brackets were planned underneath, but I was reluctant to drill into the frame)
Roof construction details: 3/16" birch plywood was cut, glued, and formed into curved ribs.
Trailer hitch detail.
Seat belt anchor detail.
Winshield and roof construction detail.
Underside of front roof construction details.
Two 14watt, 12Volt lamps, wired in series, for 24V
(note white plastic ball joints, made from shower heads)
Weatherproofing: beeper mounted on bicycle horn
HCF-305 front with cardboard mockup and graphics
HCF-305 Owner's Manual -in PDF Format:
The pictures and illustrations are being scanned, and the pidgin english
is being re-worded and cleaned up. Additional information will also be added, such as regular maintenance tips, repair methods,
as well as tried and proven replacement parts that are NOT made by the manufacturer.